Which Of The Following Is True Of The Agreements Reached At The Washington Naval Conference

The Naval Limitation Treaty remained in force until the mid-1930s. At the time, Japan was calling for equality with the United States and Great Britain in the size and number of its capital ships. When this request was rejected by the other States Parties, Japan announced in advance its intention to terminate the treaty, which therefore expired at the end of 1936. In addition to multilateral agreements, conference participants concluded several bilateral agreements. Japan and China signed a bilateral agreement, the Shangtung (Shandong), which returned control of the province and its railways to China. Japan had taken control of the territory by the Germans during World War I and had retained control of it in the following years. The combination of the Shangtung Treaty and the Nine-Power Treaty should assure China that its territory will no longer be threatened by Japanese expansion. In addition, Japan has agreed to withdraw its troops from Siberia and the United States and Japan have formally accepted equal access to cable and radio equipment on Japan-controlled Yap Island. Between 1921 and 1922, the world`s largest maritime powers met in Washington, D.C. to discuss the disarmament of the navy and ways to ease the growing tensions in East Asia. Japanese officials focused more on the peculiarities than the British, and approached the conference with two main objectives: to sign a maritime treaty with Great Britain and the United States and to obtain official recognition of Japan`s special interests in Manchuria and Mongolia. Japanese officials also addressed other topics: a strong demand to retain control of Yap, Siberia and Tsingtao, as well as broader concerns about the growing presence of U.S.

fleets in the Pacific. The five-power treaty, signed by the United States, Britain, Japan, France and Italy, was the cornerstone of the navy`s disarmament program. He asked each of the countries concerned to maintain a quota of warship tonnage that allowed the United States and the United Kingdom 500,000 tons, Japan 300,000 tons and France and Italy 175,000 tons each. Although Japan preferred that the tonnage be allocated with a ratio of 10:10:7 and that the U.S. Navy preferred a ratio of 10:10:5, the conference finally adopted the 5:5:3 limits. The main reason why the United States and Great Britain claimed higher tonnage premiums was that the two nations maintained two marine oceans: they were active in the Atlantic and pacific, with colonial territories scattered around the world. Finally, the agreement called on the signatories to stop building capital ships and reduce the size of their navies by scrapping older vessels. Although widely regarded as a success, Article XIX, which recognized the status quo of American, British and Japanese bases in the Pacific, was the subject of controversy, but banned their expansion. In particular, many members of the U.S. Navy were concerned that limiting the expansion of Pacific fortifications would jeopardize U.S. stockpiles in the Philippines, Guam and Hawaii. In the Treaty on the Four Powers, the United States, France, the United Kingdom and Japan agreed to consult each other before taking action in the event of a future crisis in East Asia.


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